Different Types of Hypertension And Their Possible Causes

Types of hypertension

Types of Hypertension

Hypertension is a term for increased blood pressure that can cause harm to our bodies. Hypertension is of two types on the basis of the leading factors that may cause it. There are two main types of hypertension. Each type has a different cause.

Primary Hypertension  

types of hypertension

Primary hypertension is also known as essential hypertension. There is no definite cause of this type of hypertension. This type of hypertension develops over time with no particular identifiable cause. Most people suffer from this type of high blood pressure.   

Although researchers can not find the exact mechanism behind this slow increase in blood pressure. But following risk factors may play a role in the development of primary hypertension.

Genes- If you have a family history of high blood pressure, then you are most likely to get this hypertension. Or this may also happen because of gene mutations or genetic abnormalities inherited from your parents. If your parents or siblings have this condition, keep checking your blood pressure regularly.

Physical Changes-  You may experience some changes throughout your body. High blood pressure is one of those issues that affect the fluids and salts in the body and disturbs the whole body’s functions. For example, it’s thought that changes in your kidney function due to aging may disturb the natural fluid and salt balance of your body. This change may cause your body’s blood pressure to increase. 

Unhealthy Lifestyle- A poor lifestyle may also lead to increased blood pressure. If you follow an unhealthy lifestyle like eating junk food, lack of physical activity, etc. Then these activities can take a toll on your body and may increase your weight to an unhealthy extent. Being overweight or obese can increase the chance of hypertension in adults, elders, and even in children. 

Secondary Hypertension

When hypertension is caused by an underlying condition such as thyroid, or kidney disease, this type of high blood pressure is known as secondary hypertension. Secondary hypertension tends to occur suddenly and increases blood pressure more than primary hypertension does. 

The main difference between primary hypertension and secondary hypertension is that secondary hypertension is caused due to other ailments. These could be-

types of hypertension

  • Kidney disease
  • Thyroid disease
  • Congenital diseases in blood vessels
  • Adrenal gland tumors
  • Obstructive sleep apnea
  • Certain medications like birth control pills
  • Cold remedies, decongestants, over the counter pain relievers
  • Certain prescription drugs or illegal drugs like cocaine

Some Other Types Of Hypertension

On the basis of the causes of high blood pressure, there are two types of hypertension. But it includes some other types of hypertension too, such as-

Pulmonary hypertension

pulmonary hypertension

Pulmonary hypertension is a type of high blood pressure that affects the arteries in your lungs and the right side of your heart. In one form of pulmonary hypertension called pulmonary arterial hypertension, blood vessels in your lungs are narrowed, blocked, or damaged. The damage slows blood flow through your lungs. The extra effort eventually causes your heart muscle to become weak and fail. In some cases, pulmonary hypertension slowly gets worse and can be life-threatening. Although there is no cure for some types of pulmonary hypertension. Treatment can help reduce symptoms and improve your quality of life. 

The cause of pulmonary hypertension is quite clear. The changes in the cells that line your pulmonary arteries can cause the walls to become stiff, swollen, and thick. These changes may slow down or block blood flow through the lungs causing pulmonary hypertension.  

Portal hypertension

portal hypertension

Portal hypertension is when blood pressure gets high in the veins system called the portal venous system. Veins coming from various body organs like the stomach, intestine, spleen, and pancreas merge into the portal vein, which then branches into smaller vessels and travels through the liver. Portal vein differs from other veins as it carries blood to the liver, unlike other veins which carry blood to the heart. The liver also plays an important role in filtering out toxins and other waste matter that the digestive organs have deposited in your bloodstream. When the blood pressure in the portal vein is too high, you have portal hypertension. Portal hypertension can be severe but it’s treatable if diagnosed in time.

Portal hypertension is caused by scarring of the liver called cirrhosis. It can be a result of several liver-related health conditions like hepatitis or alcohol abuse. When your liver is harmed it attempts to heal itself, thus causing scarring. And too much scarring makes it harder for your liver to do its job. 

Hypertension crisis

hypertensive crisis

Hypertensive crisis is a term used for hypertensive urgency and hypertensive emergency. This is a condition when blood pressure becomes very high, which may cause organ damage. In hypertensive emergencies, patients may start to experience blurred vision, confusion, increased chest pain, shortness of breath, or even seizures. 

Hypertensive crises are rare. It occurs when the hypertensive goes untreated for a long time or if the person took over-the-counter medication that increases blood pressure excessively. 

This is why regular monitoring of blood pressure is important if you have the problem of increased blood pressure.

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