Well-known Drugs in Glycemic Control: Thiazolidinedione


What are Thiazolidinedione?


Thiazolidinedione is a class of drugs that doctors use in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Some members of this drug group have been available since the 1990s. They may be more effective than older types of treatments. In order to fully understand how these drugs work, it is important to know what causes type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Uncontrolled diabetes can lead to serious health problems. In Type 2 diabetes, the body cannot make enough insulin. People with a family history of diabetes. People who are overweight or obese also have a higher chance of getting diabetes. One who exercises will not get it as easily.

More Drugs In This Class Include

Pioglitazone, Rosiglitazone And Troglitizone. This drug is helpful for people with type II diabetes. You can take it with a diet and exercise program to help your blood glucose levels.

Drinking alcohol daily with this drug may increase the risk of liver damage and lung problems. Patients who drink three or more alcoholic drinks per day should not take pioglitazone.

This medicine is an FDA pregnancy category C drug. This means that it has been shown to cause harm to the fetus in animal studies, but there are no adequate studies of this medication’s effect on human pregnancies. There have also been reports of birth defects and death in babies whose mothers have taken this drug during pregnancy.

How Do These drugs Work?

working of Thiazolidinedione

Thiazolidinedione (TZDs) are insulin-sensitizing drugs that reduce the amount of glucose produced by liver cells. They work in a similar way to metformin, but they have other effects on fat metabolism and decrease inflammation which may help prevent heart disease.

They also increase adiponectin levels.

Adiponectin is a protein that helps regulate glucose levels and may reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease, in part by increasing insulin sensitivity.

How Are Thiazolidinedione Used for Diabetes?

TZDs are used when diet, exercise, and metformin do not control blood sugar well enough on their own or with other drugs such as insulin.

TZDs are used to control blood sugar levels in people with type II diabetes who can still make their own insulin, but not enough, or whose body is not using the insulin well (insulin resistance).

How Do These Drugs Affect Weight?

They help cause weight loss when combined with exercise and dieting by increasing fat breakdown and decreasing fat storage.

TZDs may cause fluid retention and weight gain, so they are not used to treat people who are already overweight or obese. They also lower the risk of heart disease in these patients by reducing inflammation.

What Are The Side Effects of Thiazolidinedione?

What Are The Side Effects

The most common side effects include high blood pressure, gallstones (cholelithiasis), weight gain, and an increased risk of heart failure.

In addition to increasing blood sugar levels, TZDs may cause fluid retention which can increase the chance of developing high blood pressure (hypertension) or swelling in the feet or legs. In clinical trials that led to FDA approval for rosiglitazone, pericarditis (inflammation of the membranes lining the heart) occurred in 0.01% of patients receiving this drug, but some cases were fatal.

What Other Drugs Should I Know About?

Rosiglitazone is not recommended for use during pregnancy because it has been associated with birth defects when taken by women who are or may become pregnant.

Metformin is the safest drug for use during pregnancy. It does not cause weight gain or fluid retention like some other medications can. It uses if diet and exercise alone are not enough to control blood sugar levels.

People on metformin have a higher risk of developing lactic acidosis, which is an increase in the levels of lactic acid in your blood. People on metformin can experience weakness and shortness of breath.

Rosiglitazone is not as effective as metformin or sulfonylureas at lowering blood sugar levels in the long term (at least 12 months). Therefore, it should only be used when these drugs do not work well enough and when the benefits of rosiglitazone outweigh its risks.

Clinical trials led to approval by the FDA for pioglitazone. They found an increased risk in bladder cancer, heart failure, and broken bones in women who took this drug. However, the FDA found that pioglitazone was not safe. So now it has to warn people about this drug. It is the most serious warning for drugs.

How Can I Use These Drugs Safely?

Don’t take TZDs if you have heart failure or are at risk for it. They may make your condition worse.

People who take TZDs should stay under monitoring regularly by their doctor for signs of liver disease and heart failure. Doctors will make you take a blood test to measure the amount of sugar, cholesterol, or triglycerides in your blood. They might also make you take a creatinine clearance test.

If you are pregnant or are trying to become pregnant, then don’t take TZDs. If you have high blood pressure, it is also not a good idea to take them. And if you drink more than three drinks of alcohol each day, then this medicine may not be safe for you. It’s important that people taking TZDs learn how to prevent heart failure. This means they need to know the signs of lactic acidosis, too.

Rosiglitazone is not good to use when you are pregnant. You could have a baby with birth defects if you take it. One should use Pioglitazone only if the benefits outweigh the risks. It is not always safe, so stop using it as soon as you can. Some people need to take TZDs and insulin. These people need close monitoring because too low of a blood sugar level can cause hypoglycemia.

How does Thiazolidinedione Work to Enhance Insulin Sensitivity?

Thiazolidinedione function as insulin sensitizers. This is not very easy to understand. What is happening? This drug works by making cells more sensitive to insulin so glucose uses up. Therefore, TZDs lower blood sugar levels by reducing the amount of sugar made in the liver.


Thiazolidinediones is a group of drugs that treat type 2 diabetes mellitus. They are of great use to people with rosiglitazone, pioglitazone, troglitazone, and others. These drugs help the body use insulin better. They do not make more insulin. They make people more sensitive. People with diabetes like these drugs because they help them keep their blood sugar levels down. These drugs do not give too much insulin to their bodies. This helps make your muscles use glucose for energy instead of storing it as fat. This happens because the medicine that has this effect stops cells in your body called adipocytes from expressing PPARγ. This is a type of protein. Thiazolidinedione drugs often cause weight gain and edema. This is bad for people who already have these conditions and take this drug.

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